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The First-class Dialect of Chinese – Mandarin

Mandarin language, is one of the most widely spoken dialects in Chinese. Mandarin speakers are found almost in every part of China. You can find them in most areas of northern China, most of Jiangsu in the south, central and northern Anhui, most of Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou, and most of Hubei, northwestern Guangxi, western and northern Hunan, and areas along the Yangtze River in Jiangxi.

Consequently, these regions made Mandarin dialects in Chinese, their mother tongue. Among them, Standard Chinese (Putonghua of the People’s Republic of China, standard Chinese of Singapore and Malaysia) are all written in Beijing’s Mandarin Standard language formed for basic tones.

Mandarin can be subdivided into eight sub-dialects: Beijing Mandarin, northeastern mandarin Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiao Liao Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, Zhongyuan Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, and Southwest Mandarin.

Chinese Mandarin
Chinese Mandarin

1. Beijing Mandarin

Beijing Mandarin, also known as North China Mandarin. Speakers are found, in Beijing, northern Hebei, and central Inner Mongolia. Generally, it has four parts: Jingshi, Huaicheng, Chaofeng, and Shike. The user population is about 15 million. Three tones and four tones, the ancient tone of entering tone is flat, upper and lower tones.

2. Northeastern Mandarin

Northeastern mandarin is mainly spoken in most parts of Heilongjiang and Jilin, parts of Liaoning, eastern Inner Mongolia and northeastern Hebei. Northeastern Mandarin can be divided into Jishen tablets, Hafu tablets and Pinus thunbergii tablets.  Each of these has subcategories divided into several pieces. The main feature is that the ancient tone-entering school is flat, up, and down.

3. Ji Lu Mandarin

Another type of Mandarin is Ji-Lu Mandarin. Speakers live in most parts of Hebei, Tianjin, north and northwest of Shandong, Pinggu District of Beijing, Guangling County of Shanxi and Ningcheng County of Inner Mongolia. There are about 90 million speakers of Ji-Lu Mandarin. Ji-Lu Mandarin is the second closest to Beijing Mandarin in terms of structure. . It is mainly characterized by three tones and four tones, and the tone of ancient entering tone is a flat and falling tone.

4. Jiao Liao Mandarin

Jiaoguan dialect is mainly distributed in the Jiaodong Peninsula of Shandong Province, Liaodong Peninsula of Liaoning Province, the lower reaches of Yalu River, and Ganyu County of Jiangsu Province. Historically, in some areas such as Heilongjiang Province, there were dialect islands of Jiaoliao Mandarin, but they gradually disappeared into the “vast ocean” of surrounding dialects. They got subsumed with other dialects. Liao Mandarin is divided into Denglian, Qingzhou (Qinglai), and Gaihuan (Yingtong). It is mainly characterized by three tones, three tones or four tones, and the tone of ancient entering tone is flat, with upper and lower tones.

5. Mandarin of Jiang Huai

Jianghuai Mandarin is spoken in most parts of Jiangsu and Anhui, parts of Hubei, parts of Jiangxi, and other places. The population of Jianghuai Mandarin users is about 70 million, mainly distributed in Anhui Province except for Bengbu, Jiangsu Province except for Xuzhou area to the north of the Yangtze River, west of Zhenjiang, and east of Jiujiang along the south bank of the Yangtze River. Jianghuai Mandarin is divided into Tongtai films, Hongchao films, and Huangxiao films from east to west.

6. The Middle Plain Mandarin

This enunciation is used in Henan, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, Guanzhong, Shaanxi, and southern Shandong, covering Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The representative dialect is Henan. The ancient entering consonants with unvoiced consonants and sub-voiced consonants in Central Plains Mandarin now read Yinping, It is the main feature of the Central Plains Mandarin area that the ancient voiced initials are pronounced Yangping today. The main difference between Zhongyuan Mandarin, Ji-Lu Mandarin, and Jiao-Liao Mandarin is the initial consonant of the second tone in ancient times .

7. Lan Yin Mandarin

Lan Yin dialect is mainly distributed in parts of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang. It is divided into four films: Jincheng film, Yinwu film, Hexi film, and northern Xinjiang film.

8. Southwest Mandarin

Southwest Mandarin is the main language of Kokang in southwest China, which is popular in Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan and Hubei, as well as neighboring northern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, western Hunan Province, southern Shaanxi Province and Myanmar. It is also used by some Chinese in Laos and Vietnam. The main feature of Southwest Mandarin is that the ancient tone is undifferentiated, Keep the whole or mix it with other tones (rising tone, falling tone, or falling tone).

In fact, Mandarin used to be called “Northern Dialect” and “Northern Mandarin”. However, because the populations who use Jianghuai Mandarin and Southwest Mandarin are distributed in the south of Qinling-Huaihe River belong to the southern dialect, the name “Northern Dialect” is not very accurate.

Since the late 1980s, the term “Mandarin” has been uniformly used in journals and monographs of Chinese mainland academic circles. No longer use the appellation of “Northern Dialect” and “Northern Mandarin”. It is imperative to understand that “Mandarin Language” is a collective term for the regional nuances of the Chinese language in China.

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